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Th1 and the Liver
Th1 immune responses are involved in cell­mediated immunity and the clearance of intracellular pathogens including viruses. They are also implicated in autoimmune and inflam­matory liver diseases although in human liver disease, Th1, Th17, and even Th2 type cells can often be found together in the liver.

Platelets, Atherosclerosis, and Immunity
Hansjoirg Schwertz1, Andrew S. Weyrich2 and Guy A. Zimmerman3 1Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Utah School of Medicine, Eccles Institute of Human Genetics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA 2Department of Medicine and Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Utah School Of Medicine, Eccles Institute of Human Genetics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA 3Department of Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Eccles Institute of Human Genetics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Definition Platelets are anucleate, disc-shaped, colorless blood cells that are derived from a parent cell type, the megakaryocyte.

PBC Genetics
Pietro Invernizzi Liver Unit and Center for Autoimmune Liver Diseases, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, MI, Italy Synonyms Chronic nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis; Primary biliary cirrhosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary biliary cirrhosis PBC is a chronic cho-lestatic liver disease characterized by progressive destruction of small/medium intrahepatic bile ducts which leads to cirrhosis and finally to liver transplantation or death Invernizzi et al. 2010.

Nephritogenic Antibodies in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Noa Schwartz1 and Chaim Putterman2,3 1Department of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA 2Division of Rheumatology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Synonyms Nephrophilic antibodies; Pathogenic antibodies Definition Nephritogenic autoantibodies are autoantibodies present in patients with SLE and in mouse models of the disease spontaneous or induced that contribute to the pathogenesis of kidney disease in lupus.

Vasculitis: Behcet
Petros P. Sfikakis First Department of Propedeutic & Internal Medicine, Athens University Medical School, Athens, Greece Synonyms "Silk Road" disease; Adamantiades-behget disease Definition During the 1930 annual meeting of the Medical Association of Athens, the Greek ophthalmolo­gist Benediktos Adamantiades presented a 20-year-old male patient with relapsing iritis, genital ulcers, and arthritis.

Cancer and Nephrotic Syndrome
Neha Mehta1 and Ruben Niesvizky2 Department of Medicine, New York Presbyterian-Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY, USA 2Department of Medicine - Division of Hematology/Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College/NY Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA Synonyms Focal segmental glomerulonephritis; IgA nephropathy; Light chain nephropathy; Membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis; Membranous glomerulonephritis; Minimal change disease; Paraneoplastic glomerulonephritis; Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis; Renal amyloidosis Definition and Background Nephrotic syndrome Describes the onset of heavy proteinuria >3.0 g/24 h, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, edema, and microscopic hematuria.

Scleroderma, Treatment Current and Upcoming
Lazaros I. Sakkas1,2 and Ioannis Alexiou3 1Department of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences and University General Hospital of Larissa/ University of Thessaly, Larissa, Hellas 2Center for Molecular Medicine, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA 3University General Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, Hellas Synonyms Progressive systemic sclerosis; Scleroderma; Systemic sclerosis Definition The treatment of systemic sclerosis, based on likely pathogenic mechanisms, is directed toward immune cell activation, pathways of collagen synthesis, and, in patients with vascular manifes­tations, vasoreactive pathways.

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