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Lichen Planus
Sarika Ramachandran The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Synonyms Lichen planopilaris LPP; Lichen planus LP; Oral lichen planus OLP Definition Lichen planus is an inflammatory disease which can involve hair, skin, nails, and mucosa.

Stephanie Edelmann and Vigo Heissmeyer Institute of Molecular Immunology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany Synonyms C-Rel; NF-kB2 p52 and its precursor p100; Nuclear factor kB; NF-kB1 p50 and its precur­sor p105; RelA p65; RelB Definition NF-kB is a dimeric transcription factor complex active throughout all cell types.

Transgenic, Humanized, or Chimeric Mouse Models
Definitive analyses of the immunological mech­anisms involved in HBV or HCV pathogenesis required the development of easy-to-manipulate mouse models with a well-defined immune system. Thus far, a large amount of the cellular/ molecular pathogenic or antiviral mechanisms that may occur during viral hepatitis in man has been obtained in transgenic mice replicating HBV at high levels in their liver Guidotti et al. 1995.

Cancer and Neuropathies
Bridget T. Carey, Efstathia Tzatha and Joshua Weaver Department of Neurology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Synonyms Immune-mediated neuropathy in cancer; Inflam­matory neuropathy associated with malignancy; Paraneoplastic neuropathy; Peripheral neuropathy in cancer; Polyneuropathy in cancer Definition Neuropathy Refers to the injury or dysfunction of the peripheral nerves.

Vasculitis and the Kidney
Steven Yew and David Jayne Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Synonyms Renal Definition Vasculitis is a pathological process defined by leukocyte invasion and fibrinoid necrosis of the vessel wall.

Structure of CD5
CD5 is a glycoprotein of molecular mass 67kDa when reduced, 58kDa when not reduced. It is a member of the type B "scavenger receptor cysteine-rich" SRCR superfamily, an ancient and highly conserved group that includes CD6, MARCO macrophage receptor with collagenous structure, Mac-2, M160 CD163, M130, and a family of molecules expressed on y8 T cells, called WC workshop cluster-1. In humans, CD6 is only 82kb distant from CD5 on the long arm of chromosome 11 11q13; the exon/intron organization of the human CD5 and CD6 genes is very similar, differing only in the size of intron 1 and the number of exons encoding their cyto-plasmic regions; the conserved structure of the two loci, in both mouse and human, supports the premise that the two genes resulted from dupli­cation of a primordial gene.

Neutrophilic Dermatoses: Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis
Gideon P. Smith1 and Andrew G. Franks Jr.2 1Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA 2Dermatology and Medicine Rheumatology, Skin Lupus and Autoimmune Connective Tissue Disease Section, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Synonyms Cutaneous small-vessel vasculitis; Cutaneous vasculitis; Hypersensitivity angiitis; Hypersensi-tivity vasculitis; Leukocytoclastic vasculitis; Small-vessel vasculitis; Vasculitis Definition Leukocytoclastic vasculitis is inflammation of the small blood vessels of the skin.

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