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Surrogate Animal Models of Infection with Related Viruses
As mentioned earlier, the availability of animal species that can be experimentally manipulated and represent natural hosts of HBV-related hepadnaviruses has created opportunity for investigation throughout the years.

Polyarteritis Nodosa
Atul Khasnis and Leonard H. Calabrese Department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases, Section of Clinical Immunology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA Definition A systemic inflammatory disease characterized by necrotizing medium-vessel vasculitis.

Autoimmune Heart Disease: Animal Models
Urs Eriksson Department of Internal Medicine, GZO - Zurich Regional Health Center, Wetzikon, Switzerland Division of Cardioimmunology, Department of Cardiovascular Research, Institute of Physiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Definition Autoimmune heart disease defines any structural or functional alteration of heart tissue due to aberrant immune responses against cardiac self-antigens, which impairs the capacity of the heart to maintain sufficient cardiac output to meet metabolic demands of the body.

Falk Nimmerjahn1,2 and Anne Barenwaldt2 1Institute of Genetics, Department of Biology, University of Erlangen-Niirnberg, Erlangen, Germany 2Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Synonyms CD32B; Fc fragment of IgG low-affinity IIb receptor Definition FcyRIIB is a low-affinity receptor Ka = 107 M_1 for the constant region of immunoglobulin G IgG and belongs to the family of Fcg-receptors FcgR.

Resolution of Inflammation
Ann C. Skulas-Ray Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA Synonyms Catabasis; Lipid-mediator class switching Definition Resolution of inflammation is the termination of an inflammatory response.

Sarika Ramachandran The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Synonyms Psoriasis vulgaris Definition Psoriasis is an inflammatory, immune-mediated disease which can involve the skin, nails, and joints.

Leonard H. Sigal Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, UMDNJ - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA Synonyms B reg - B regulatory cell; B10 - B cell producing IL-10; BAFF/BLyS - B cell activating factor/B lymphocyte stimulator BCR - B cell antigen receptor; CaMKII - Ca +/calmodulin-dependent kinase; CLL - chronic lymphocytic leukemia; DC - dendritic cell; EAE - autoimmune experimental acute encephalomyelitis; gp - glycoprotein; ITAM – Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motif; ITIM - Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Inhibitory Motif; MARCO - macrophage receptor with col­lagenous structure; MOG - myelin oligodendro­cyte glycoprotein; PAMP - pathogen-associated molecular patterns; PC-PLC - Phosphatidylcho-line-specific Phospholipase C; PI3K - Phosphati-dylinositol 3-kinase; PRR - pathogen recognition receptor; PTP1C - Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase 1C; RAS-GAP-Ras GTPase activating protein; SHP-1 - Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1; SLE - systemic lupus erythematosus; SRCR - scavenger receptor cysteine rich; T reg - regulatory T cell; TCR - T cell antigen receptor; TdT - terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase Definition CD5 previous names for CD5 have included Leu-1, Ly-1, OKT-1, T1, and Tp67 is a surface glycoprotein found in association with both the T cell antigen receptor TCR and the B cell Antigen receptor BCR.

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