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Klaus Okkenhaug Laboratory of Lymphocyte Signalling and Development, Babraham Institute, Cambridge, UK Synonyms Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; Phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PI 3-kinase Definition PI3Ks are a family of enzymes that can phosphor-ylate the inositol head group of phosphoinositides PtdIns on the D3 position.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome, Clinical Manifestations
Yaniv Sherer Hospital Management, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and Sackler, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel Synonyms APS - clinical manifestations Definition Antiphospholipid syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by various clinical manifestations the most characteristic are thromboses and pregnancy morbidity in the presence of elevated levels of antiphospholipid antibodies.

Systemic Autoimmune Disease and Premature Atherosclerosis
Jason S. Knight1 and Mariana J. Kaplan2 1Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA 2Systemic Autoimmunity Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Synonyms Cardiovascular disease CVD = atherosclerotic disease; Premature atherosclerosis = accelerated latherosclerosis; Systemic autoimmune disease = rheumatologic disease Definition Premature atherosclerosis is the formation of arterial atheromatous plaques at an earlier age than would be expected based on traditional Framingham CV risk factors.

Autoantibodies to Endothelial Cells
Gemma D. Banham, Matthew D. Morgan and Caroline O. S. Savage Renal Immunobiology, School of Immunity and Infection, College of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK Synonyms AECAs; Anti-endothelial cell antibodies Definition Endothelial cells form a single cell layer lining of the luminal wall of blood vessels.

Complement Regulation in the Kidney
Daniel J. Birmingham Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA Definition The complement system maintains homeostasis by achieving a balance between complement acti­vation and complement regulation.

Nitric Oxide
David A. Lawrence Laboratory of Immunology, Wadsworth Center New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, USA Synonyms Endothelium-derived relaxing factor EDRF; Nitrogen monoxide; Nitrogen oxide; NO; Reactive nitrogen species Definition Nitric oxide NO is a radical compound formed when a single nitrogen is covalently bonded with a single oxygen N = O. Nitric oxide is produced endogenously from the catabolism of L-arginine by a nitric oxide synthase NOS.

Gestational Alloimmune Liver Disease
Peter F. Whitington Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Ann and Robert H Lurie Children`s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Synonyms Neonatal hemochromatosis Definition Gestational alloimmune liver disease GALD is a unique fetal liver disease that results from maternal alloimmunity against fetal hepatocytes.

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